The Industry Industries in Europe

 Industry in ancient Europe

The regions of northern England, Midland, Catalonia, the Po Valley, and Flanders formed an exceptional situation during the eighteenth century, as their people worked in mines, mills, quarries, and textile-producing factories. The length of the Beech River in the Netherlands aroused astonishment and admiration for Peter the Great when he visited it in 1697 AD, when 500 windmills were set on wood, and the squares surrounding the cranes were filled and paved with pieces of wood. Twelfth. [1]

The production pyramid in the old industrial system formed an interconnected relationship between workers, merchants, and businessmen, while businessmen provide the metal workers with the raw materials, means of transportation, fuel, and wages, the disposal of their products of knives or sewing needles was not limited to the local market. Rather, they relied on businessmen also to market them on a larger scale, and this included the regions of England with a productive expansion based on the new industrial system, as the number of industrial machines increased, and this was also reflected on the peasants in Electoral Saxony who switched from agriculture to industry. The percentage of peasants working in industry increased from 5-30% between 1550 and 1750 AD. [1]

The Industrial Revolution in Europe

The second half of the eighteenth century is the first spark that changed the world technically and scientifically. Since the sixties of the nineteenth century, the first industrial revolution began in Europe, which led to a change in the economic pattern and the life of people, where industries dependent on coal and iron prevailed, which led to the development of Production systems, in addition to the introduction of steam energy in the development of transportation systems, which led to population development and growth the likes of which the world had never seen. [2]

The distribution of industries according to European regions

The mountainous places in eastern Europe and the Scandinavian countries are famous for their timber industry, while fishing is one of the main industries in the Atlantic regions or the northern coasts. Many vegetables, fruits, and vineyards are also grown in the Mediterranean regions, and are distinguished by: Russia, Germany, Poland, and the Czech Republic produced more than a third of the amount of coal in the world, in addition to its distinction in the manufacture of mineral deposits, such as: lead, bauxite, zinc, potassium, and mercury, while Romania was recognized as the largest oil producer in Europe. The North Sea, especially Britain, by extracting and benefiting from its oil wealth. The largest industrial areas are located in the central western regions, especially in the north and northeast of France, the Ruhr Basin, and near the northern sea ports in Antwerp and Amsterdam,

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